$ BACKUP MTA0:SAVE.BCK/SELECT=[SAVE...] [SAVE...]
You can also affect BACKUP operations by specifiying qualifiers. BACKUP has five types of qualifiers:
You cannot use input and output qualifiers in image operations.
It is important to understand the differences between the types of qualifiers. The position of qualifiers in the BACKUP command line affects the results of the command. Although command qualifiers can be placed anywhere in the command line, input- and output-specifier qualifiers are position-dependent. That is, input-specifier qualifiers must be placed immediately after the input specifier, and output-specifier qualifiers must be placed immediately after the output specifier.
Additionally, several BACKUP qualifiers are both input-specifier qualifiers and output-specifier qualfiers. To achieve the results you want from a BACKUP command, ensure that you place position-dependent qualifiers correctly. For example, use the /SAVE_SET qualifier as an output save-set qualifier in a BACKUP save operation and as an input save-set qualifier in a BACKUP restore operation.
Appendix G contains more information about valid combinations of BACKUP qualifiers. Table 7-2 summarizes BACKUP qualifiers by type.
|/[NO]ALIAS||Specifies whether to maintain the previous behavior of multiple processing of alias and primary file entries.|
|/[NO]ASSIST||Allows operator or user intervention if a request to mount a magnetic tape fails during a BACKUP operation.|
|/BRIEF||Causes the /LIST qualifier to display the file specification, size (in blocks), and creation date for each file in the save set.|
|/COMPARE||Causes BACKUP to compare the contents of the first parameter with the contents of the second parameter.|
|/DELETE||Specifies that a BACKUP save or copy operation is to delete the selected input files from the input volume after all files have been successfully processed.|
|/ENCRYPT||Creates and restores encrypted save sets.|
|/FAST||Processes the input specifier using a fast file scan to reduce processing time.|
|/FULL||Displays the information produced by the /LIST command qualifier in a format similar to that displayed by the DCL command DIRECTORY/FULL.|
|/IGNORE||Specifies that a BACKUP save or copy operation overrides restrictions placed on files or is not to perform tape label processing checks.|
|/IMAGE||Directs BACKUP to process an entire volume or volume set.|
|/INCREMENTAL||Allows you to restore a disk volume from a series of incremental save sets. (Unrelated to /NOINCREMENTAL.)|
|/[NO]INITIALIZE||Initializes an output disk volume, making its entire previous contents unavailable.|
|/INTERCHANGE||Directs BACKUP to process files in a manner suitable for data interchange (software distribution) by excluding information that would prevent other utilities or sites from reading the BACKUP save set.|
|/IO_LOAD||Increases or decreases the number of simultaneous I/Os issued by the BACKUP utility. The default is 8 I/Os. The minimum is 2 I/Os.|
|/JOURNAL||Specifies that a BACKUP save operation is to create, or append information to, a BACKUP journal file.|
|/LIMIT||Specifies the expansion size limit during restore or save operations.|
|/LIST||Lists information about a BACKUP save set and about the files in a save set.|
|/[NO]LOG||Displays the file specification of each file processed during the operation on SYS$OUTPUT.|
|/NOINCREMENTAL||Allows you to control the amount of file data that is saved in a save operation. (Unrelated to /INCREMENTAL.)|
|/PHYSICAL||Specifies that a BACKUP operation is to ignore any file structure on the input volume and to process the volume in terms of logical blocks.|
|/PROGRESS_REPORT||Displays the progress of a backup operation on the current output device.|
|/RECORD||Records the current date and time in the BACKUP date field of each file header once a file is successfully saved or copied.|
|/RELEASE_TAPE||Dismounts and unloads a tape after a BACKUP save operation either writes and verifies the save set, or reaches the end of the tape.|
|/SIZE||Preserves the logical volume size on the target device or allows you to specify the logical size of the target device.|
|/[NO]TRUNCATE||Controls whether a copy or restore operation truncates a sequential output file at the end-of-file (EOF) when creating it.|
|/VERIFY||Specifies that the contents of the output specifier be compared with the contents of the input specifier after a save, restore, or copy operation is completed.|
|/VOLUME||Indicates that a specific disk volume in a disk volume set is to be processed.|
|Input File-Selection Qualifiers|
|/BACKUP||Selects files according to the BACKUP date written in the file header record by the BACKUP/RECORD command.|
|/BEFORE||Selects files dated earlier than the date and time you specify.|
|/BY_OWNER||Causes BACKUP to process files owned by the specified UIC.|
|/CONFIRM||Displays prompts on your terminal for confirmation before processing each file.|
|/CONVERT||Converts ODS-5 file names to ODS-2 file names.|
|/CREATED||Selects files according to the value of the creation date field in each file header record.|
|/EXCLUDE||Excludes files from processing that otherwise meet the selection criteria for a save or copy operation.|
|/EXPIRED||Selects files according to the value of the expiration date field in each file header record.|
|/FILES_SELECTED||Specifies a file that contains a list of the files that are to be selected when a save set is restored.|
|/HEADER_ONLY||Controls whether BACKUP saves only the file header of shelved and preshelved files.|
|/MODIFIED||Selects files according to the value of the modified date field (the date the file was last modified) in each file header record.|
|/SINCE||Selects files dated equal to or later than the specified date and time.|
|Output File Qualifiers|
|/BY_OWNER||Redefines the owner user identification code (UIC) for restored files.|
|/NEW_VERSION||Creates a new version of a file if a file with an identical specification already exists at the location to which the file is being restored or copied.|
|/OVERLAY||Writes over an existing file when an identically named file is encountered during the restore operation.|
|/REPLACE||Replaces a file on the output specifier with an identically named file from the input specifier.|
|Input Save-Set Qualifiers|
|/[NO]CRC||Checks the software cyclic redundancy check (CRC) encoded in the save set's data blocks.|
|/INPUT_FILES||Directs BACKUP to treat the input-specifier as the file name of a list of files. This file specifies the input files for a BACKUP operation.|
|/[NO]REWIND||Rewinds the input tape reel to the beginning-of-tape marker before reading the input volume.|
|/SAVE_SET||Directs BACKUP to treat the input file as a BACKUP save set.|
|/SELECT||Selects the specified files for processing.|
|Output Save-Set Qualifiers|
|/BLOCK_SIZE||Specifies the output block size, in bytes, for data records in BACKUP save sets and in disk-to-disk copies.|
|/BY_OWNER||Specifies the owner user identification code (UIC) of the save set.|
|/COMMENT||Places the string that you supply into the BACKUP summary record of the output save set.|
|/[NO]CRC||Specifies that the CRC is to be computed and stored in the data blocks of the output save set.|
|/DENSITY||Specifies the recording density of the output magnetic tape.|
|/EXACT_ORDER||Specifies the exact order of tape volume labels that you want to use in a BACKUP operation.|
|/GROUP_SIZE||Defines the number of blocks BACKUP places in each redundancy group.|
|/LABEL||Specifies the 1- to 6- character volume labels for the magnetic tapes and 1- to 12- character volume labels for disks to which the save set is written.|
|/MEDIA_FORMAT||Controls whether data records are automatically compacted and blocked together.|
|/PROTECTION||When you create a save set on disk, this qualifier defines the protection to be applied to an output save set. When you create a save set on magnetic tape, this qualifier defines the protection to be applied to the magnetic tape volume.|
|/[NO]REWIND||Rewinds the output tape to the beginning-of-tape marker and initializes the output tape.|
|/SAVE_SET||Directs BACKUP to treat the output file as a BACKUP save set.|
|/TAPE_EXPIRATION||Writes a file expiration date other than the current date to the file header label of the save set.|
By duplicating files or volumes of files, the Backup utility (BACKUP) protects data from loss or corruption.
BACKUP is intended for use primarily by system managers and operators to protect public media. However, anyone can use BACKUP to make personal BACKUP copies and to transport files between OpenVMS systems.
The two ways to back up your system disk are:
BACKUP input-specifier output-specifier
input specifierSpecifies the input for the BACKUP operation. The input specifier can be a standard OpenVMS file specification, a BACKUP save-set specification, or a device name. If the input specifier is a save-set specification on disk, it must include the input save-set qualifier /SAVE_SET.
DECnet node names are allowed only in save-set specifications.
Wildcards are permitted in standard OpenVMS file specifications and in save-set specifications if they are on magnetic tape.
output specifierSpecifies the output for the BACKUP operation. The output specifier, like the input specifier, can be either a standard OpenVMS file specification, a BACKUP save-set specification, or a device name. If the output specifier is a save set on disk, it must include the output save-set qualifier /SAVE_SET.
DECnet node names are allowed only in save-set specifications.
You can use wildcard characters if the output specifier is a Files--11 volume. You cannot use wildcard characters if the output specifier is a BACKUP save set or a volume created by a BACKUP/PHYSICAL or BACKUP/IMAGE operation. For restrictions on the use of wildcard characters in BACKUP commands, see Section 7.3.2.
To invoke online BACKUP, enter an appropriate BACKUP command at the DCL prompt. For instructions on invoking standalone BACKUP, refer to the HP OpenVMS System Manager's Manual.
When you enter a BACKUP command, BACKUP evaluates the input and output specifier and qualifiers to determine the type of operation to perform. BACKUP uses the input specifier to locate the input to the utility and directs output to the output specifier, which can be a file or a save set on disk or a save set on magnetic tape.
After executing the command, BACKUP returns to DCL command level. If you want to halt the execution of a BACKUP command prematurely, press Ctrl/Y. If BACKUP is creating a file when you press Ctrl/Y, the file is closed immediately and only partially created.
You need the user privilege TMPMBX to send messages to operator terminals when using BACKUP in batch mode. If you are performing a save operation to a volume set of sequential disks, you must have the user privilege PHY_IO or LOG_IO to write to a continuation volume. The use of several BACKUP qualifiers also requires privileges; these are noted in the appropriate qualifier descriptions.
Specifies that the previous behavior of multiple processing of alias and primary file entries be maintained.
Use the /ALIAS qualifier only when you are restoring very old save sets (from OpenVMS Version 6.2 or earlier). The current default behavior is correct in nearly every other situation. If you are in doubt about using this qualifier, contact your HP support representative.
/ALIAS save-set-spec (default)
The /ALIAS qualifier maintains the previous BACKUP behavior of treating alias file entries the same as primary file entries. Therefore, a primary file may be processed multiple times by BACKUP if one or more alias file entries reference the same primary file entry.
If you specify /NOALIAS, alias directory and file entries are ignored. Therefore, multiple processing of primary files may be avoided, which saves time and save-set file space. If a restore operation is performed using the /ALIAS qualifier but the save set was created by using the /NOALIAS qualifier, a message is displayed that the /ALIAS qualifier will be ignored.
Allows operator or user intervention during a BACKUP operation if a magnetic tape mount request fails or if an operation requires another volume.
/[NO]ASSIST input-specifier output-specifier
The /ASSIST qualifier causes BACKUP to send messages to operator terminals when a failure occurs during a BACKUP mount request or when an operation requires another volume. BACKUP sends messages to operator terminals enabled to receive TAPES and CENTRAL messages. (See the description of the REPLY command in the HP OpenVMS DCL Dictionary for information about enabling and disabling operator terminals.) If a failure occurs, the operator can either abort the operation or correct the error condition and allow the operation to continue.
If no operator terminal is enabled to receive TAPES and CENTRAL messages and to respond to a mount assist request, a message is displayed informing the user of the situation. If a volume is placed in the requested drive, no additional operator response is necessary. Any operator reply to a mount request is written to SYS$OUTPUT. When BACKUP is run interactively, SYS$OUTPUT is the user's terminal. When BACKUP is run in batch mode, SYS$OUTPUT is the batch job log file.
If you specify /NOASSIST, mount messages appear on your terminal and are not sent to the operator.
The default is /ASSIST. The /NOASSIST qualifier has no effect if the logical name SYS$COMMAND points to a device that is not a terminal (as is the case when you run BACKUP in a batch job). Specifying /NOASSIST when BACKUP is run in batch mode has no effect.
$ BACKUP/NOASSIST [PAYROLL]*.*;* MTA1:PAYROLL.BCK/LABEL=WKY101
This command mounts the volume labeled WKY101 on the MTA1 tape drive and copies all files in the [PAYROLL] directory to a save set named PAYROLL.BCK. The /NOASSIST qualifier directs BACKUP to send mount messages to your terminal rather than to the operator terminal. The WKY101 label indicates that WKY101 is a weekly BACKUP tape in group 1, volume number 01. (If the volume label of the tape is not WKY101, you can direct BACKUP to write the save set to the tape by choosing the OVERWRITE option at the BACKUP> prompt.)
Input File-Selection Qualifier
Selects files according to the BACKUP date written in the file header record by the BACKUP/RECORD command.
The /BACKUP qualifier is valid with Files--11 Structure Levels 2 and 5 volumes only and must be used with either the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier. You cannot use /BACKUP with the /CREATED, /MODIFIED, or /EXPIRED qualifiers in an image operation or in a physical operation.
The /BACKUP qualifier selects files by comparing the date and time recorded in the BACKUP field of the file header record with the date and time specified with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier. The date and time recorded in the file header record is the date and time the file was last saved or copied using the /RECORD command qualifier.
When you use /BACKUP with /BEFORE, files with a BACKUP date prior to the specified date or time are selected. Files with no BACKUP date (that is, /RECORD was not specified when the file was saved or copied) are also selected.
When you use /BACKUP with /SINCE, files with a BACKUP date equal to or later than the specified date or time are selected. Files with no BACKUP date (that is, /RECORD was not specified when the file was saved or copied) are not selected.
$ BACKUP/RECORD _From: [PAYROLL]*.*;*/BEFORE=01-SEP-2002/BACKUP _To: MTA1:SEP01.BCK
In this command, the /BACKUP qualifier combined with the /BEFORE qualifier saves all versions of all files in the directory [PAYROLL] that have a BACKUP date written before September 1, 2002. The command qualifier /RECORD writes the date and time of the save operation to the file header record of each saved file.
$ BACKUP/RECORD [ACCOUNTS...]/SINCE=YESTERDAY/BACKUP MTA1:ACC.BCK
In this command, the /BACKUP qualifier combined with the /SINCE qualifier saves all files in all subdirectories of [ACCOUNTS] that have a BACKUP date written since yesterday (24 hours before midnight last night). The command qualifier /RECORD writes the date and time of the save operation to the file header record of each saved file.